5 Motivation Theories for Human Resources that aren’t in PMBOK 6th Edition
Five motivation theories are explained in the Human Resources section. These 5 motivation theories are not included in the PMBOK (r) guide but you should still know them to pass the PMP(r).
Side note: Although the PMP(r), exam is largely based upon the PMBOK (r) guide (90 %+),), there will be situationsal questions and concepts that are not covered in the guide.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs represents the 5 levels of basic human need. If your lower-level needs are not met, you cannot move up to a higher need.
Your basic needs include food, water, shelter, and clothing. These essential needs are vital for survival. Without these basic survival mechanisms, a person cannot move up to higher levels of needs.
Before moving on to the next stage, a person must feel safe and secure in their environment.
A person must feel part of a group, in addition to their safety and physiological needs. He/she needs people to love and be loved. To be emotionally stable, he/she needs to have family, friends, and a romantic partner.
People must feel valued and a valuable contributor to society. They must feel confident in their abilities and appreciated by their community.
Self-actualization is the realization of one’s potential and achieving one’s purpose. Every person has a different purpose. Some people want to be Olympic athletes, while others are interested in starting multinational companies.
McGregor’s Theory X, Theory Y
Douglas McGregor was a management professor from MIT. He developed Theory X (or Theory Y) which refers to how managers perceive employees.
Theory X says that employees are incompetent, lazy, and untrustworthy. Managers must be on guard at all times. To ensure employees are not sleeping or doing unproductive work, managers must monitor them at all times. Theory X managers micromanage their employees and blame others.
Theory Y says employees are self-reliant and capable. They also have trustworthiness. Employees are able to manage their time and find unique solutions to problems. Managers and employees maintain open communication. Overall, it is a positive work environment.
Side note: The phrase “my eX incompetent” was how I remembered Theory X & Theory Y.
Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory
Frederick Herzberg developed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory. It states that the job’s content determines the employee’s motivation. While money is an important motivator, it is not the only one.
Hygiene factors are factors such as work conditions and hours, pay, vacation, fringe benefits, and other factors. A worker will be demotivated if they don’t have the right hygiene factors. However, a rise in hygiene factors won’t increase productivity or motivation.
Motivational factors are factors like career advancement, challenging work and autonomy. A worker’s motivation will increase and productivity.
McClelland’s Need Theory
American theorist David McClelland proposed that people are motivated primarily by one of three needs: Need to Power, Need for Affiliation, or Need for Achievements.
Power is a must
People who are driven by power want to work as leaders (e.g. CEO, managers, entrepreneurs). They want to be able to influence others and take control. They are not afraid to break up relationships in order to get what they want.
Need for Affiliation
People who are motivated to be affiliated like to work in a positive environment with like-minded people. They are driven by being liked and will go to great lengths to build good working relationships with their peers.
Need for Achievements
People who are driven by success want to do difficult jobs they have never done before. They are curious and eager to learn.